Professor Dmitri Mendeleev – Chemist, Metrologist, Teacher, Industrialist
25 years to the Official Representative of LECO Corporation in Russia and CIS Countries
Analytical Methods of Rare and Precious Metals – the Ways of Evolution The review article following the report at the 76th Kurnakov Scientific Conference (December 2018) describes in detail the development’ stages of the analytical chemistry methods of rare and precious metals, beginning in the mid 19th century.
The evolution of physical methods of analysis, which are based on the theory of measurement of an analytical signal strictly specific to each chemical element, is shown.
Over the past century, instrumental methods of inorganic analysis have been formed – atomic-spectral, X-ray, mass-spectral and radioanalytical, which are in principle suitable for solving problems of analyzing rare, rare-earth, precious metals and materials based on them.
The problems, significance and scope of the use of rare elements and precious metals in science and industry are discussed. The contribution of great scientists of the 20th century – Academicians N. P. Sazhin, N. S. Kurnakov, I. P. Alimarin and others to the theory of chemical analysis and research of the composition, structure and properties of rare elements and precious metals is noted.
The question of the new methods development in analytical nanodiagnostics is on the tapis. The ways and prospects for the development of this area of analytical chemistry are outlined.
Development of the Methods of Preconcentration in the Analysis of Gas Media In a review article based on the plenary report at the V All-Russian Symposium "Separation and Preconcentration in Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry" (Krasnodar, October 2018), the current trends in the development of preconcentration methods in the analysis of gaseous media are discussed. The evolutionary nature of this development is noted, when new methods do not force out, but complement existing ones. After reviewing the general schemes and features of the analysis of gaseous objects in the article, the analytical capabilities of various preconcentration methods are discussed.
Peculiarities of Preconcentration of Polar Biologically Active Compounds on Hypercrosslinked Polystyrene Information on peculiarities of preconcentration of polar biologically active compounds on hypercrosslinked polystyrene (HCPS), which is a commercially available microporous polymeric adsorbent, for chemical analysis are systematized. General characteristics of hypercrosslinked polystyrenes are given. Examples of adsorption of different type compounds (methylxanthines, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, flavonoids and others) on the sorbents of this type are given. Various methods of analytical preconcentration using HCPS and combinations of the preconcentration with methods of subsequent determination are discussed. The possibilities of multi-residue preconcentration of organic compounds on HCPS as well as the opportunities of direct (without sample preparation) solid-phase extraction of target analytes from analyzed samples are shown.
New Generation of Gas Analytical Systems Based on Diode Lasers The trends of the development of diode laser spectroscopy (DLS) in the field of analytical chemistry and gas analysis are considered. The results of the work of the Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the RAS for the creation of a family gas analyzers based on diode lasers as applied to the tasks for ecology, medicine and control of technological processes are presented. The unique developments of recent years are described: a family of DL gas analyzers for controlling impurities in the process of obtaining high-purity volatile hydrides, multicomponent DL gas analyzers for medical diagnostics of exhaled air, a software-hardware DL-complex for the Roshydromet laboratory aircraft for measuring altitude profiles of greenhouse gases, unmanned remote laser methane gas analyzer, etc. Prospects for further development and expansion of the field of analytical application of technologies based on DL are outlined.
Field-flow Fractionation of Macromolecules and Nanoparticles The principle of operation of analytical systems based on the flow fractionation of particles in transverse fields of different nature is described. The history of the method, the mechanisms of flow fractionation in asymmetric flows, electric and gravitational fields, under the action of centrifugal forces, as well as under conditions of temperature gradient are presented. The features and capabilities, applications and objects of study for each modification of the method are discussed. A comprehensive solution from Postnova Analytics is described - a FFF (Field-Flow Fractionation) platform for particles/macromolecules separation in transverse fields. Fractionation modules, detectors, temperature stabilization systems and other components are integrated under a single program control.